Where is Opportunity Rover on Mars?

Hubble Photo, Topographic Map, and Mars Fact Sheet

Home Next

Hubble photo - Mars 2001 opposition.

Above: red cross marks the Opportunity Rover landing site on this Hubble photo taken during the Mars opposition of 2001. For the original press release and full resolution image, go to  http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2001/24/image/a

Meridiani Planum and surrounding areas on Mars.

Above: the area on Mars outlined by the red square is detailed in the topographic map below it. The Opportunity landing site at 2.0S, 5.6W is marked by the circled red cross.
One degree at the equator of Mars = 59.29 km (36.85 mile).

The map shown above was cropped from a much larger version that shows the entire surface of Mars. It is available for download in PDF format; the file size is about 2 MB. Right click the link below, select "save as", and choose a folder where you want to keep it. It's a great map, it's free, and it's well worth the time to download it!

http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/i-map/i2782/i2782_sh1.pdf

 


Mars Fact Sheet

Mars/Earth Comparison

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bulk parameters

                                                   Mars           Earth         Ratio (Mars/Earth)

Mass        (10^24 kg)                 0.64185       5.9736      0.107

Volume (10^10 km^3)                 16.318      108.321     0.151

Equatorial radius (km)                 3397        6378.1       0.533

Polar radius (km)                       3375        6356.8         0.531

Volumetric mean radius (km)    3390         6371.0        0.532

Core radius (km)                       1700          3485          0.488

Ellipticity (Flattening)              0.00648      0.00335     1.93

Mean density (kg/m^3)              3933          5515          0.713

Surface gravity (m/s^2)             3.71           9.80           0.379

Surface acceleration (m/s^2)    3.69           9.78           0.377

Escape velocity (km/s)             5.03           11.19         0.450

GM (x 10^6 km^3/s^2)             0.04283     0.3986      0.107

Bond albedo                             0.250          0.306         0.817

Visual geometric albedo         0.150          0.367         0.409

Visual magnitude V(1,0)        -1.52         -3.86 -

Solar irradiance (W/m^2)       589.2         1367.6          0.431

Black-body temperature (K)   210.1       254.3            0.826

Topographic range (km)           30              20               1.500

Moment of inertia (I/MR^2)    0.366          0.3308         1.106

J2 (x 10-6)                               1960.45      1082.63       1.811

Number of natural satellites        2                  1

Planetary ring system                   No               No

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Orbital parameters

                                                  Mars              Earth            Ratio (Mars/Earth)

Semimajor axis (10^6 km)         227.92           149.60          1.524

Sidereal orbit period (days)      686.980        365.256         1.881

Tropical orbit period (days)      686.973       365.242          1.881

Perihelion (10^6 km)                   206.62         147.09            1.405

Aphelion (10^6 km)                     249.23         152.10           1.639

Synodic period (days)                 779.94 - -

Mean orbital velocity (km/s)       24.13            29.78            0.810

Max. orbital velocity (km/s)       26.50            30.29             0.875

Min. orbital velocity (km/s)        21.97             29.29             0.750

Orbit inclination (deg)                 1.850               0.000 -

Orbit eccentricity                         0.0935             0.0167            5.599

Sidereal rotation period (hrs)    24.6229           23.9345          1.029

Length of day (hrs)                      24.6597           24.0000          1.027

Obliquity to orbit (deg)               25.19               23.45              1.074

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mars Observational Parameters

Discoverer: Unknown

Discovery Date: Prehistoric

Distance from Earth

Minimum (10^6 km) 55.7

Maximum (10^6 km) 401.3

Apparent diameter from Earth

Maximum (seconds of arc) 25.1

Minimum (seconds of arc) 3.5

Mean values at opposition from Earth

Distance from Earth (10^6 km) 78.39

Apparent diameter (seconds of arc) 17.9

Apparent visual magnitude -2.0

Maximum apparent visual magnitude -2.91

Mars Mean Orbital Elements (J2000)

Semimajor axis (AU) 1.52366231

Orbital eccentricity 0.09341233

Orbital inclination (deg) 1.85061

Longitude of ascending node (deg) 49.57854

Longitude of perihelion (deg) 336.04084

Mean Longitude (deg) 355.45332

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

North Pole of Rotation

Right Ascension: 317.681 - 0.108T

Declination : 52.886 - 0.061T

Reference Date : 12:00 UT 1 Jan 2000 (JD 2451545.0)

T = Julian centuries from reference date

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Martian Atmosphere

Surface pressure: 6.36 mb at mean radius (variable from 4.0 to 8.7 mb depending on season)

[6.9 mb to 9 mb (Viking 1 Lander site)]

Surface density: ~0.020 kg/m^3

Scale height: 11.1 km

Total mass of atmosphere: ~2.5 x 10^16 kg

Average temperature: ~210 K (-63 C)

Diurnal temperature range: 184 K to 242 K (-89 to -31 C) (Viking 1 Lander site)

Wind speeds: 2-7 m/s (summer), 5-10 m/s (fall), 17-30 m/s (dust storm) (Viking Lander sites)

Mean molecular weight: 43.34 g/mole

Atmospheric composition (by volume):

Major : Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - 95.32% ; Nitrogen (N2) - 2.7%

Argon (Ar) - 1.6%; Oxygen (O2) - 0.13%; Carbon Monoxide (CO) - 0.08%

Minor (ppm): Water (H2O) - 210; Nitrogen Oxide (NO) - 100; Neon (Ne) - 2.5;

Hydrogen-Deuterium-Oxygen (HDO) - 0.85; Krypton (Kr) - 0.3;

Xenon (Xe) - 0.08

 

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Satellites of Mars

                                                      Phobos          Deimos

Semi-major axis* (km)                     9378           23459

Sidereal orbit period (days)             0.31891     1.26244

Sidereal rotation period (days)       0.31891     1.26244

Orbital inclination (deg)                  1.08            1.79

Orbital eccentricity                         0.0151         0.0005

Major axis radius (km)                    13.4            7.5

Median axis radius (km)                  11.2            6.1

Minor axis radius (km)                    9.2              5.2

Mass (10^15 kg)                             10.6             2.4

Mean density (kg/m^3)                   1900            1750

Geometric albedo                           0.07            0.08

Visual magnitude V(1,0)               +11.8          +12.89

Apparent visual magnitude (V0)    11.3            12.40

*Mean orbital distance from the center of Mars.

Fact sheet data source:

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/planetary_home.html

 

Home Next